Background: Excess high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) intake may contribute to high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the world. The influence HFCS diet and kefir-treatment on skull development process, especially cranial bone has been poorly documented. Aim: In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary HFCS on the expression of cranial bone of inflammatory cytokines in association with metabolic parameters in the young male rats. Methods: HFCS was given to the rats as 20% solution in drinking water for eight weeks. Plasma glucose and triglyceride levels were determined by standard enzymatic techniques. Plasma levels of insulin, total testosterone, and estradiol were measured by commercial ELISA kits. Gene expression level of NfκB, TNFα, Nrf2, and CYP3A1 in the cranial bone samples were established by real-time PCR. Results: HFCS diet elevated plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and estradiol levels, but did not change testosterone expression in rats. Dietary HFCS increased the levels of NfκB, TNFα, and CYP3A1, whereas reduced Nrf2 mRNAs in the cranial bone samples of rats. Kefir supplementation normalized extremely all these disorders in the HFCS-fed rats. Conclusion: These changes could be responsible for development of cranial bone disorders and intake of kefir could have beneficial effects on skull formation in childhood.
Anahtar Kelimeler: HFCS, Kefir, Cranial bone, NfκB, TNFα, CYP3A1, Nrf2